Hydrogen is an abundant chemical element made of one electron and one proton, and in standard conditions it exists in molecular form as H2 gas. Hydrogen is a colorless, odorless and highly combustible nonmetal that is often stored in high-pressure tanks in its gas or liquid form.

Green hydrogen is formed through electrolysis, which uses electricity from renewable sources such as wind or solar power to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Since the source is from renewable energy, the fuel is truly emission-free and clean, making it “green.”

How hydrogen combustion engines work, versus gasoline engines. Hydrogen combustion engines can be more efficient and with better emissions versus gas engines, due to the fuel differences of H2. by Engineering Explained
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New coating is a breakthrough for hydrogen fuel: “Doing so successfully would “boost the solar-to-hydrogen efficiency to an order of magnitude higher.” The researchers created a 3-nanometer-thick coating. Made from titanium oxide in Hu’s lab, the coating conformally encapsulates the photoabsorber. Loaded onto the coating are metal nanoparticles that serve as co-catalysts. The structure allows the photocatalyst to perform different reactions at the cocatalyst site and bare coating surface concurrently. The system is designed to scale up readily, and it has achieved a record-high energy-conversion efficiency of 1.7% with narrow-bandgap semiconductors, while remaining stable for more than 150 hours, a much longer period compared to other systems of similar materials.
“The combination of coatings and cocatalysts makes it possible for electrons and holes to separately transport through the coating by design with minimum recombination,” Hu said. “That makes this kind of particle-based solar fuel generators work.”

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